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A little about the Roman Empire

The Roman Empire officially began with the reign of Emperor Augustus Caesar in 43 BCE. It extended throughout Europe, deep into the coastal regions of Africa, Asia Minor, and the Middle East. Strategically, it controlled all lands and ports bordering the Mediterranean Sea, as well as many of the inland trade routes.  

The Empire also had many settled colonies that extended its culture as far north as the Baltic Sea, although this region was never formally annexed. Settlements even stretched east into Central Asia as well, close to the opposing armies of the ancient Chinese Han Dynasty. The two forces never engaged militarily, however.

Lasting over 1000 years, The Roman Empire’s borders fluctuated over time, eventually culminating with present day Italy. The Eastern Roman Empire was the last to fall to invaders, being taken over by the Ottoman Turks in 1453.